Straddling stocks are fish stocks that pass through more than one exclusive economic zone or are in more than one exclusive economic zone. The agreement was adopted in 1995 and entered into force in 2001.  The EU negotiates PTAs (formerly known as the Fisheries Partnership Agreement) with third countries to allow EU vessels to fish for surplus stocks in that country`s exclusive economic zone (EEZ). Under these agreements, the EU pays a contribution to the coastal state for access to its fisheries resources. In addition, EU Member States whose vessels fish in third-country waters under private or charter agreements can only communicate to the European Commission the names of the vessels concerned. It is not necessary to provide other relevant information, such as target type, fishing area, fishing period or fishing gear, or to make that information publicly available. This prevents the Commission, third countries with a fishing or management interest in the same stocks and other stakeholders, from fully understanding the activities carried out by these vessels and ensuring that they are legal and sustainable. ICCAT is a regional fisheries organisation responsible for the conservation of tuna and tuna species in the Atlantic and adjacent areas. The EU currently chairs the ICCAT Commission. The fisheries agreement with Iceland was signed within the framework of the Agreement on the European Economic Area (EEA).
Iceland is also an important partner in the management of common stocks in the North-East Atlantic. Fisheries relations with the Faroe Islands are the subject of the 1980 Fisheries Agreement. Following the signing in 2014 of a five-year trilateral mackerel agreement between the EU, Norway and the Faroe Islands, European vessels were able to return to Faroe Island waters and vice versa. The IOTC Committee is responsible for adopting conservation and management measures to ensure the long-term conservation and sustainable exploitation of fishery resources under ioTC`s competence and to protect the marine ecosystems in which these resources are present. Most of these FPAs are negotiated with developing countries. In 2014, more than €130 million was paid to 13 countries to ensure that the EU fleet has access to fishing under such an agreement. The only publicly disclosed information on SFPAs is the access fee paid by the EU, as EU Member States have requested access to the country`s waters and the fishing opportunities available. WCPFC is a regional fisheries organisation established in accordance with United Nations maritime law and the United Nations Fish Stocks Convention. The objective of the agreement is to ensure, through effective management, the long-term conservation and sustainable exploitation of highly migratory fish stocks in the Western and Central Pacific.
This Agreement shall apply to all highly migratory fish stocks within the Convention area, with the exception of sauries. The agreement attempts to achieve this objective by creating a framework for cooperation in the conservation and management of these resources. It promotes good governance in the oceans through the effective management and conservation of the resources of the high seas, including by establishing detailed international minimum standards for the conservation and management of straddling fish stocks and highly migratory fish stocks; ensure that measures for the conservation and management of these stocks are compatible and coherent in areas of national sovereignty and adjacent high seas; Ensure that there are effective mechanisms for the implementation and implementation of these measures on the high seas; and recognizing the specific conservation and management needs of developing countries, as well as development and participation in fisheries for the two types of stocks mentioned above. . . . .