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Leaders of Egypt, Ethiopia and Sudan signed a cooperation agreement on the Grand Renaissance Dam in 2015 to ease tensions. The agreement should pave the way for further diplomatic cooperation. One of the main principles of the agreement is the priority to be given to the downstream of the electricity produced by the dam, a dispute resolution mechanism and compensation for damages. This agreement between Egypt and Sudan, which complements the previous agreement, gave Egypt the right to count 55.5 billion cubic meters of Nile water per year and Sudan 18.5 billion cubic meters per year. This agreement was signed between Egypt and Great Britain, which then represented Uganda, Kenya, Tanganjika (now Tanzania) and Sudan. The document gave Cairo the right to veto projects higher up the Nile that would affect its share of water. Nearly two decades after its creation, the Nile Basin Initiative (NBI) Transition Mechanism was awarded for fulfilling several elements of its institutional project – creating an atmosphere of trust and dialogue among riparian countries. However, the negotiations under the auspices of the NBI have not carried out one of the most fundamental tasks of the Organization: the creation of a sustainable legal framework and an institution that is “acceptable” to all States throughout the basin. The diplomatic undertaking that led to the adoption of the agreement on the Cooperation Framework for the Niais Basin (CFA) faced many challenges. I assert that, despite unprecedented summits in cooperative dialogues, widely presented from the upstream point of view as a “political triumph”, the legal and hydropolitical discourse that led to the final framework of the CFA did not appease the “expectations” of two important states of detention on stilts: Egypt and Sudan.

This was an existential threat to the institutional future of the NBI itself and to the noble goals it sought to achieve. Nevertheless, the organizational situation in the basin has also shown that the Nilanrain countries have little choice but to revive the “declining” momentum and ensure that the NBI undertaking is concluded in an “inclusive” and “fair” manner. Otherwise, according to the author, the alternative would not only represent a bleak future from the point of view of cooperation and optimal development of the Nile`s resources, but would also stifle the permanent interests of the basins. Established in 1999, the initiative brought together the nine countries of the Nile Basin to develop the river cooperatively, share important socio-economic benefits, and promote peace and security in the region. The Nile Basin Initiative (NBI) is a partnership between the Nile`s riparian countries that “aims to develop the river cooperatively, share important socio-economic benefits, and promote regional peace and security.” [1] The NBI initiated a dialogue among riparian countries, which resulted in a common goal of “sustainable socio-economic development by making equitable use of and benefiting from the common water resources of the Nile Basin”. [1] [2] It was officially established in February 1999[2] by the water ministers of nine countries sharing the river: Egypt, Sudan, Ethiopia, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Burundi, Rwanda, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and Eritrea as observers. . . .