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A gangmaster or employment agency is an individual or business that provides labour for agriculture, horticulture, shellfish collection and food processing and packaging, or that employs staff to provide a service such as harvesting or collecting agricultural products or shellfish. Gangmaster must be licensed by the Gangmasters Licensing Authority (GLA) and comply with the terms of that license. These conditions set standards for each linked dwelling provided by the Gangmaster. A report for the UK government described the linked pub system as “one of the most interconnected industrial relationships you can identify in the UK, with several cash flows going both ways, from the pub tenant to the pubco, and vice versa, which are usually traded on a pub-by-pub basis.” [1] Some (usually poorly functional) ads were sold, but after several other maneuvers, the Big Six (or their derivatives) separated from their pub properties. Bar businesses were created (often financed by large breweries) that actually made the pubs a reality. In addition to limiting the number of related houses that could own large breweries, their tenants were granted the right to purchase a beer out of tie (a “welcome beer”). This provision was partly responsible for the rapid expansion of microbreweries from the 1990s on. Another effect has been that many underperforming pubs have been sold either as family homes of character or as shops, and the number of pubs in the UK has therefore fallen sharply. During the nineteenth century, large brewers gradually expanded their related lands, mainly by buying smaller breweries and their pubs. From 1880, the brewery experienced rapid growth in licensed outlets, and by the mid-1890s about 90% of the trade (the sale of beer to be consumed on the site) was linked by beer in major British cities (Manchester, Liverpool, Birmingham, etc.). Fusion mania was followed in the 1980s by a “mini-fusion mania”, involving a few large regional breweries, which resulted in a much greater reduction in consumer choice. In the late 1980s, the Monopolies and Merger Commission (MMC) participated, and shortly before the MMC report of March 1989, the Financial Times revealed that the Big Six were responsible for 75% of British beer production and owned 75% of their related homes. Bass owned the largest property with about 7300 houses, Whitbread 6500 and Courage 5.100.

Although prohibition was repealed in 1933, the Twenty-first Amendment to the U.S. Constitution gave the United States broad power to regulate the alcoholic beverage industry. Tied house restrictions have been interpreted in such a way that they prohibit virtually any form of vertical integration in the alcoholic beverage industry.. . . .