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As with the withdrawal of type-approval, there are both economic and political pressures on Germany not to bring a civil action against a vehicle manufacturer. VW employs 750,000 people in Germany, 175 Lewis & Ridley, a.a.O. 60. and its sales represent a significant percentage of the country`s revenues. 176 Alanna Petroff, What Volkswagen means for the German economy, CNN Money (September 23, 2015, 8:00 a.m.), money.cnn.com/2015/09/22/news/economy/volkswagen-germany-cars-economy/index.html. The Länder are themselves major shareholders of the company and many of the country`s political leaders also have business relations with the manufacturer. 177 Ewing, a. a. O.

Note 11; Jack Ewing, Volkswagen avoids efforts to strengthen monitoring of German regional elections, N.Y. Times (Oct. 15, 2017), www.nytimes.com/2017/10/15/business/volkswagen-germany-election.html?rref=collection%2Fbyline%2Fjack-ewing (“The Land of Lower Saxony holds a [20] % stake in Volkswagen and the ruling party has a strong say in the company`s strategy.”). Given these strong incentives to maintain VW`s profitability and profitability, one of the few remedies available in Germany is for one of its Länder to sue a producer for misinterpretation, fraud or conspiracy. 178 Ewing, former head of Volkswagen in Germany, investigates the exhaust gas fraud scandal, a. A. 61. While criminal proceedings may take place, the complaint cannot be brought for violation of environmental legislation. Comparative study, see note 78, 70-71. 173Allemande of Hesse, Baden-Württemberg, sue VW for Dieselgate, Reuters (Sept. 16, 2016) www.reuters.com/article/us-volkswagen-emissions-litigation/german-states-of-hesse-baden-wuerttemberg-sue-vw-over-dieselgate [the action brought by the Länder]; Patrick McGee, a German court, paves the way for investors to sue Volkswagen, FINANCIAL Times (8 August 2016), www.ft.com/content/30f9f0d2-5d86-11e6-a72a-bd4bf1198c63.

42 Jack Ewing, Engineering a Deception: What Led to Volkswagen`s Diesel Scandal, N.Y. Times (March 16, 2017), www.nytimes.com/interactive/2017/business/volkswagen-diesel-emissions-timeline.html?_r=1. Volkswagen is set to plead guilty criminally and pay $4.3 billion in fines, in a deal that would resolve a federal investigation into its vehicle mission test fraud, the automaker said Tuesday. Except on the basis of VW`s confession, claims resolved by civil law agreements are only allegations. If Volkswagen struck the deal, it would be one of many companies that would reach agreements with federal investigators during a recent wave of activity before President-elect Donald J. Trump took office. In December, Deutsche Bank agreed to pay $7.2 billion as part of the marketing of toxic securities related to the U.S. real estate market. The 9. On September 27, 2016, James Robert Liang, a Volkswagen engineer, who works at the Volkswagen test site in Oxnard, California, as part of a plea with the U.S. Department of Justice, that the stop device had been deliberately installed in U.S.

vehicles to the knowledge of his engineering team: “Liang admitted that starting in 2006, he and his co-conspirators began designing a new “EA 189” diesel engine for sale in the United States….